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Military History
« on: November 24, 2018, 11:14:38 AM »
#OTD 155 years ago, Union forces crossed Lookout Creek at about 8:30 AM and began moving up the slopes of Lookout Mountain under the cover of fog. The “Battle Above the Clouds” raged until 2 PM giving the Federals control of the left anchor point of the Confederate lines overlooking Chattanooga, Tennessee.


Re: Military History
« Reply #1 on: November 24, 2018, 11:16:04 AM »
THAT DEVIL FORREST

Nashville Campaign
November 23, 1864
Artwork by John Paul Strain

Again the men in gray were outnumbered. Again they faced destruction by a more powerful enemy. Any commander would have been justified in avoiding battle. But General Nathan Bedford Forrest was not any commander. Typically, he chose to attack.

At the head of General John Bell Hood's drive into Federally-occupied Tennessee, Forrest and his cavalry found the road to Nashville blocked by a heavy concentration of enemy troops. It was just cause for a withdrawal, but instead of withdrawing, Forrest divided his force, took his 80-man escort and proceeded to flank the enemy to set up a surprise attack, at Fouche Springs.

The Federal force he intended to assault was perhaps twenty times larger than Forrest's mounted strike force. But again Forrest unleashed a ferocious strike where least expected. The enemy cavalrymen had unsaddled their mounts for the night, and did not suspect the presence of the much-feared Forrest this bitterly cold night.

Then "that devil Forrest" burst from the woods upon them - and the Northerners were terrorized. Their quiet camp erupted into chaos, and they fled in every direction. "I made the charge upon the enemy alone," Forrest would later report, "producing the perfect stampede." The stampede led the stunned Federals into a blast of fire from Forrest's main force - which ignited a panic among the men in blue. The enemy force was broken and scattered - and the road to Nashville was open for the Confederate Army of Tennessee.

Ahead, with Forrest in the lead, surely a great victory awaited them. Now anything seemed possible. Anything.


Re: Military History
« Reply #2 on: November 24, 2018, 09:19:30 PM »


Re: Military History
« Reply #3 on: November 26, 2018, 11:17:18 AM »
THE GATHERING STORM

General Robert E. Lee near Salem Church
Orange Plank Road, Virginia - November 20, 1862
Artwork by John Paul Strain

Riding past the Salem Church along the Orange Plank Road towards the historic town of Fredericksburg Virginia, General Robert E. Lee felt the gathering of a storm. Reports from his scouts indicated that the Federal Army was massing across the Rappahannock River for another advance. As a northern front was soon to blow rain and then snow across the countryside, it was the job of General Lee commanding the Army of Northern Virginia, to somehow stop the new threat from the Federal Army.

General Robert E. Lee was up to the task. He was born the son of a Revolutionary War hero, General "Light Horse Harry" Lee, who was one of George Washington's cavalry commanders. Robert had been raised by his mother to revere and pattern his life after General Washington. He graduated at the top of his West Point class and distinguished himself in battle during the Mexican War. He had already successfully led his army in the Seven Days' Campaign, the Second Battle of Manassas, and the Battle of Sharpsburg.

As his mentor George Washington had led his country in a revolution for independence, General Lee believed it was his responsibility to do the same. General Washington wore three stars on his uniform signifying his rank, as did General Lee. Lee's horse Traveller was named for one of Washington's favorite mounts. It was said that Lee even packed one of General Washington's swords in his personal baggage for inspiration. As Washington seemed to have been protected during battle, receiving bullet holes in his uniform on a number of occasions, General Lee too never received a serious wound. On a personal reconnaissance to the front in the Second Battle of Manassas he returned with the mark of a Northern sharpshooter's bullet on his face. Most of his generals would either be seriously wounded or killed in the war.

It was now the plan of the Federal Army to mass 120,000 troops at Fredericksburg and overwhelm the Southern Army. But countering with 75,000 men, General Lee held the high ground. The audacity and brilliance of the commander of the southern revolution and his soldiers was about to be demonstrated. The battle of Fredericksburg would be General Robert E. Lee's and the Army of Northern Virginia's greatest victory.



Re: Military History
« Reply #4 on: November 26, 2018, 12:34:52 PM »

Re: Military History
« Reply #5 on: November 28, 2018, 02:58:15 AM »
Confederate Crossing
Gen. N.B. Forrest at Owen’s Ford, Nov. 28, 1864
Artwork by Mort Kunstler

In November of 1864, General William T. Sherman prepared to lead a powerful Northern army in a devastating “March to the Sea” across Georgia. In a desperate attempt to stall Sherman’s campaign, General John Bell Hood led his Confederate army from Georgia back into the heart of Tennessee. Southerners hoped that Hood’s advance would prevent Sherman from ravaging the Deep South – but it was not to be. Northern forces were strong enough to oppose Hood with other armies: Federal troops under General George H. Thomas and John M. Schofield. In late November, Hood attempted to envelop and destroy Schofield’s forces near Spring Hill, Tennessee. Leading the Confederate advance was General Nathan Bedford Forrest’s cavalry, which forded the Duck River on November 28, and spearheaded the attack. They moved their horses through the icy river, looking for battle.

 Although unable to affect the campaign’s outcome, Forrest and his Confederate cavalry again set the standard for bold and courageous action. They aggressively engaged the Northern forces before them -- driving back the Northern cavalry, pressing the Federal infantry, and attacking Northern supply trains. Forrest’s success was typical of the fabled “Wizard of the Saddle.”

For untold ages, students of the War Between the States would marvel at Forrest’s tactics and triumphs. Decades after Southern flags were folded and rifles were stacked, former Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston was asked to name the single most successful commander of the Civil War. It had to be Nathan Bedford Forrest, Johnston mused, concluding that had the self-trained Forrest possessed a West Point education, he would have been “the great central figure of the Civil War.”


Re: Military History
« Reply #6 on: November 28, 2018, 10:16:02 AM »


In 1862, Jack Hinson owned a large, prosperous plantation along the Kentucky-Tennessee border, known as Bubbling Springs. The Civil War had been raging for the past two years, but somehow Hinson had managed to remain neutral, friendly to enlisted men and officers on both sides of the battle.

But that all changed one late-fall day when two of Hinson’s sons—George, age 22; and John, age 17) went hunting together and were spotted by occupying Union troops. Accused of being “bushwackers” (Southern sympathizers), the brothers were executed on the spot and decapitated. Their severed heads were then taken back to the plantation house by the soldiers and placed on the gateposts of the front yard, as a warning to other members of the family.

Jack Hinson was understandably both shocked and outraged. After all, hadn’t the Union General himself, Ulysses S. Grant, once visited Hinson’s plantation as a guest? Whatever kindness Hinson may have felt toward the North instantly and completely evaporated—he swore revenge.

But Hinson, being an older man, did not hastily run off to join the Confederate Army. Instead, he conceived a more calculated plan; one that would ultimately result in the deaths of many Union soldiers and sailors and have hundreds of federal troops eventually hunting him.

Hinson first commissioned a special rifle, to be built by a local gunsmith. A .50-caliber, percussion-cap muzzleloader, the gun was a typical Kentucky rifle save two differences: its weight (18 pounds), and its lack of the usual decorative brass ornamentation. Both attributes were intentional. The long, heavy octagonal barrel would make the gun an excellent long-range sniper rifle, and the plainness of the gun would aid in its camouflage.



The first victim of Jack Hinson’s new rifle was the lieutenant of the patrol that had killed Hinson’s two sons. Hinson shot him from ambush while the lieutenant was riding horseback at the head of a column. Several months later, Hinson’s second victim was the soldier who had placed Hinson’s sons’ heads on the plantation gateposts.

Hinson then relocated to a natural sniper nest miles away, overlooking the Tennessee River. This particular section of river, known as the Towhead Chute, was a narrowing in the stream where Union Navy gun boats and troop transports were slowed during their trip upstream by the swift current. Hinson knew of the place, and he also knew that the soldiers and sailors on deck aboard those enemy vessels would be easy targets for his rifle.

From his vantage point high above the river, Hinson would rest his heavy rifle on a rock or tree limb and shoot men 500 or more yards away. An excellent marksman, he used only open sights and tallied more than 100 kills; the soldiers on the boats often never even knew from which direction the deadly shot had been fired. Hinson’s shooting was so accurate that one boat even stopped in mid-stream, dropped anchor, and surrendered to Hinson by running a white tablecloth up the signal mast. It was the first and only time in military history that an entire boat surrendered to a single man.

When Hinson saw the white flag he ceased fire, but had no idea what to do next. Neither did the boat captain. The boat remained motionless in the river for a time, but when no Confederate soldiers swarmed from the woods to take command, the captain eventually ordered the anchor raised and the ship to move on. The incident was one of the strangest of the American Civil War.



Jack Hinson and his deadly rifle became such a menace to Union forces that specific orders were issued to either capture or kill him.  As a result, parts of nine regiments—both cavalry and infantry—and an amphibious task force of specially-built Navy boats with a special-operations marine brigade targeted him. He was never taken.


Re: Military History
« Reply #7 on: November 29, 2018, 05:29:41 AM »
GUNS OF THE WEST

Generals Forrest, Cleburne and Granbury
Spring Hill, Tennessee
November 29, 1864
Artwork by John Paul Strain

The leaves of autumn had changed into tones of fiery reds and yellow as the Confederate Army of the Tennessee, under the leadership of General John Bell Hood, advanced into the rain-soaked countryside of Middle Tennessee. Atlanta had fallen despite Hood's aggressive defense of the city. General Hood's plan was to destroy Federal communication and supply lines and force Sherman to pursue him out of Georgia and into Tennessee.

Hood's force was spearheaded by some of the most talented and gallant generals in the Southern Army. His cavalry commander was Major General Nathan Bedford Forrest, who rode his famous horse "King Philip". Known as the "Stonewall Jackson of the West", Major General Patrick R. Cleburne led his division on his favorite horse "Red Pepper", with General Hiram B. Granbury commanding a brigade of deadly Texans. It was a powerful force to be reckoned with.

On the evening of November the 29th at Spring Hill, Hood's force would briefly skirmish with Federal infantry. The attack was made at sunset. Unsure of enemy strength, General Hood did not give orders for a full-scale engagement. Hood's force had greatly outnumbered the Federals, and more decisive action would have given him a quick victory. The next day Hood would send wave after wave of southern soldiers into Federal fortified positions, at Franklin, Tennessee, silencing many of the guns of the west.


Re: Military History
« Reply #8 on: November 29, 2018, 01:05:29 PM »
This thread is a great read, have nothing to add on this end, just getting my daily Am. history dose. 8)

Re: Military History
« Reply #9 on: November 30, 2018, 12:38:54 AM »
This thread is a great read, have nothing to add on this end, just getting my daily Am. history dose. 8)

I've always been interested in the French and Indian Wars, the American Civil War, and WWII.
Another interest is the Napoleonic Wars.
Lately, I've been watching a lot of this guy's videos about the Great War(WWI):


Re: Military History
« Reply #10 on: November 30, 2018, 12:41:29 AM »
GENERAL FORREST AT CARNTON

General N.B. Forrest, Major J.P. Strange & Mrs. Caroline McGavock
November 30, 1864 - Franklin, Tennessee
Artwork by John Paul Strain

During the latter part of the cold days of November 1864, General Hood's Confederate Army of the Tennessee was challenging two retreating Federal Army corps under the command of General John M. Schofield. With support from Nathan Bedford Forrest in command of the Southern cavalry, Hood's army outmaneuvered Schofield, and at Spring Hill had a chance to cut off the Federals from their retreat to Nashville. Although Confederate forces outnumbered the Federals, Hood was unsure of the enemy's strength and did not give orders for a full-scale engagement. The Federals slipped past during the night and took refuge behind the fortifications in Franklin.

As was his practice to make a thorough personal reconnaissance of the enemy's position, General Forrest arrived on the morning of November 30 at the Carnton plantation. Forrest was greeted by the lady of the house Mrs. Caroline McGavock. Bounding up the stairs of the beautiful home, the general went to the balcony to glass the enemy fortifications. It was clear from this observation post that the enemy was far too strong for an assault at this position.

Mounting his horse, King Phillip, Forrest left the home in haste with his Adjutant General J.P. Strange. General Forrest turned his spurs to the south to find General Hood and report what he had found. At one o'clock in the afternoon Forrest informed Hood that the Federal position could not be taken by a direct assault. General Hood replied "I do not think the Federals will stand strong pressure from the front; the show of force they are making is a feint in order to hold me back from a more vigorous pursuit." Forrest remarked, "General Hood if you will give me one strong division of infantry with my cavalry, I will agree to flank the Federals from their works within two hours' time."

At four o'clock the gray lines got the given sign to move forward in a frontal attack. The rank and file of 18,000 men swept like a wave across the battlefield. The attack was as spectacular and as hopeless as Pickett's charge. For 5 hours Hood sent wave after wave of southern boys to their deaths. The Carnton home served as field hospital for hundreds of dying and wounded soldiers. An officer wrote, "the wounded, in the hundreds were brought to the house during the battle, and all the night after. And when the noble old house could hold no more, the yard was appropriated...." The next morning the bodies of four great Confederate Generals killed during the battle were brought to the home. Generals Patrick R. Cleburne, Hiram B. Granbury, John Adams, and Otho F. Strahl were placed in a row on the back porch. When General Forrest returned to the home and viewed the bodies of his friends and fellow officers, it was said he galloped back to Hood's headquarters with fire in his eyes.

Many a brave man's spirit departed that autumn day at Carnton. And many say their spirits have never left.




Re: Military History
« Reply #11 on: November 30, 2018, 12:48:53 AM »

Re: Military History
« Reply #12 on: November 30, 2018, 05:09:46 AM »
Great thread...I grew up in Neersville, VA about 6 miles (south) across the river from Harpers Ferry, W VA.  At the northern base of Shorthill on Route 671 (now the "Old Harpers Ferry Road").  Lots of steep, rocky hiking trails and great views from Loudoun Heights.

Re: Military History
« Reply #13 on: November 30, 2018, 05:23:26 AM »
Although most of the material is known to me, the posts in this thread are thoroughly enjoyable to read.  And that story about Hinson "capturing" a boat was a new one and a delight.

Re: Military History
« Reply #14 on: November 30, 2018, 06:42:50 AM »
Great thread...I grew up in Neersville, VA about 6 miles (south) across the river from Harpers Ferry, W VA.  At the northern base of Shorthill on Route 671 (now the "Old Harpers Ferry Road").  Lots of steep, rocky hiking trails and great views from Loudoun Heights.

A great area to grow up in - the stomping grounds of The American Revolution and The Civil War! There was a bit of The French and Indian War to touch that far south, as well.
I'm in that area 30+ times a year.



I went to the Gettysburg reenactment about twenty years ago and here's a photo that my ex took.
I will not say anymore as people see different things, and we didn't notice anything unusual until the pictures were developed and her father(a schizophrenic) informed us.




Re: Military History
« Reply #15 on: November 30, 2018, 06:48:42 AM »
Although most of the material is known to me, the posts in this thread are thoroughly enjoyable to read.  And that story about Hinson "capturing" a boat was a new one and a delight.

Ah, then you will love the tale of Simon Girty.
A TRUE BAD ASS! If you have a few bucks, I think that I grabbed this book for around seven bucks on the kindle. A great read.


Re: Military History
« Reply #16 on: November 30, 2018, 06:51:45 AM »


Simon Girty was an important frontiersman in the Ohio Country in the years before, during, and after the American Revolution.

Girty was born in 1741 in Chambers Mill, Pennsylvania. American Indians eventually killed Girty's father. By the time Girty was fourteen his family had moved to Sherman's Creek in eastern Pennsylvania. During the French and Indian War, the Girtys, fearful of attack, sought refuge in Fort Granville. In 1755, a combined army of French soldiers and their American Indian allies captured the fort, taking several British colonists captive including Girty. He was first taken to Kittanning, a Delaware town, but he eventually found himself in the hands of the Seneca, who took him to the Ohio Country. There, he was adopted into the Seneca nation. Girty seemed to enjoy his new surroundings, spending his late teens learning the language and customs of the Senecas.

In 1758, a British army commanded by General John Forbes captured a major French outpost in the Ohio Country, Fort Duquesne. Their French allies having yielded to the British, the Seneca signed a peace agreement with the English in 1759 and agreed to return all captives. The natives returned Girty to his mother, and he spent the next several years as a struggling farmer. He also served as an interpreter for traders seeking furs from the Delaware in western Pennsylvania.

As more British colonists moved into the area, sparking tensions with local American Indians, British officials enlisted Girty's help in negotiating treaties. Throughout the late 1760s and early 1770s, he served as an interpreter at Fort Dunmore (formerly Fort Duquesne and subsequently Fort Pitt). He also assisted Lord Dunmore in Lord Dunmore's War as a scout and interpreter.

With the outbreak of the American Revolution, both the British and Americans sought Girty's assistance. Each side hoped Girty's knowledge of American Indian language and customs in the Ohio region would help them secure alliances among the various tribes in western Pennsylvania and Ohio. The frontiersman first sided with the Americans, assisting General James Wood in 1775 in negotiations with the Shawnee, the Seneca, the Delaware, and the Wyandot. Girty did not like the structure of military life and frequently clashed with his superiors. He was eventually discharged from the U.S. military and, in September 1777, was even arrested and charged with treason for supposedly helping plan the seizure of Fort Pitt. The conspirators reportedly hoped to massacre the fort's residents and then turn it over to the British. U.S. authorities eventually acquitted Girty, but his desire to help the U.S. had evaporated. On March 28, 1778, the frontiersman left Fort Pitt and offered his services to the British military in Detroit.

From 1778 until the American Revolution's conclusion in 1783, Girty served as an interpreter for the British among American Indians in the Ohio Country. He also led American Indians in several attacks on U.S. soldiers, including laying siege to the American garrison at Fort Laurens in eastern Ohio in 1779. He also assisted in the removal of Moravian missionaries, such as David Zeisberger and John Heckewelder, along with their American Indian converts, from along the Tuscarawas River to Upper Sandusky, where the British could more easily watch them. U.S. authorities labeled Girty a traitor and even offered a reward of eight hundred dollars for his capture or death.

During the war, Girty earned a reputation for his brutality. He supposedly had no misgivings about killing others or about watching them be tortured to death. He became well known for not ending the suffering of Colonel William Crawford in 1782. The Delawares captured Crawford and tortured him before executing him in retaliation for the Gnadenhutten Massacre a few months earlier. During this incident, Pennsylvania militia murdered ninety-six Delaware men, women, and children. Before killing Crawford, his executioners marked him for death by painting his face black. The Delawares eventually burned Crawford at the stake. During his torture, Crawford reportedly begged Girty, who was in attendance, to shoot him. Girty refused. If he had fulfilled Crawford's wish, the American Indians would most likely have killed Girty for not allowing them to attain justice in their own way. Americans later vilified him for allowing the episode to proceed. Girty was a man walking between two different worlds. It was a fine line to walk, because if he offended either side, the result could have been his death.

Upon the American Revolution's conclusion, Girty continued to assist American Indians in resisting American settlement of the Ohio Country. He played an active role in the defeat of General Arthur St. Clair and his army in 1791. He also participated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794. Following the natives' defeat at Fallen Timbers at the hands of General Anthony Wayne, many American Indians residing in Ohio realized that they would have to make peace with the U.S. and thus refused Girty's continued demands for resistance against white settlement. He spent the next several years near Detroit, but after the British abandoned that community, Girty sought safety in Canada. He died there in 1818.

Re: Military History
« Reply #17 on: November 30, 2018, 07:03:56 AM »
When American currency was just beginning to develop values, it was at the time when frontiersman would hunt and trap hides, furs, and pelts. They would take them to isolated posts on the frontier to barter for the goods that they needed. After they were stocked, the frontiersman would be given currency for the remaining skins they had for trade.
The basic guideline for this barter would be that a large deer skin is equal to one American dollar, which they often called a buck.



Re: Military History
« Reply #18 on: November 30, 2018, 11:11:54 AM »
I went to the Gettysburg reenactment about twenty years ago and here's a photo that my ex took.
I will not say anymore as people see different things, and we didn't notice anything unusual until the pictures were developed and her father(a schizophrenic) informed us.


Wow.

Just shadow and light and...nah...

Thanks for sharing. :o

Re: Military History
« Reply #19 on: November 30, 2018, 11:13:02 AM »
When American currency was just beginning to develop values, it was at the time when frontiersman would hunt and trap hides, furs, and pelts. They would take them to isolated posts on the frontier to barter for the goods that they needed. After they were stocked, the frontiersman would be given currency for the remaining skins they had for trade.
The basic guideline for this barter would be that a large deer skin is equal to one American dollar, which they often called a buck.



If you've ever watched Tom Oar process and tan a hide you know that's days of work, for a single buck/dollar.

Astounding.

Love this thread.

Re: Military History
« Reply #20 on: November 30, 2018, 03:03:27 PM »
Wow.

Just shadow and light and...nah...

Thanks for sharing. :o

That was taken at the Devil's Den.




Re: Military History
« Reply #21 on: November 30, 2018, 03:33:34 PM »
I visited as a youngster, could never square the tranquility of that day with the sheer ferocity of the fighting. I guess most battlefields are like that. Nicely hosted video, was that ghost dog walker at the end?

 ;)

Re: Military History
« Reply #22 on: November 30, 2018, 10:42:06 PM »
I visited as a youngster, could never square the tranquility of that day with the sheer ferocity of the fighting. I guess most battlefields are like that. Nicely hosted video, was that ghost dog walker at the end?

 ;)

There is a great poem about the silence of a deserted battlefield but I couldn't find it.
I'm not familiar with Walker...

Re: Military History
« Reply #23 on: November 30, 2018, 10:44:39 PM »
Most of the Civil war stories on this page are from the facebook group Hallowed Grounds.
Please give them a like.


Re: Military History
« Reply #24 on: November 30, 2018, 11:06:57 PM »
The Second Battle of Franklin

The Union Line Breaks


On this day in 1864, the once proud Confederate Army of Tennessee suffers a devastating defeat after its commander, General John Bell Hood, orders a frontal assault on strong Union positions around Franklin, Tennessee. The loss cost Hood six of his finest generals and nearly a third of his force.

Clayburns Charge







Re: Military History
« Reply #25 on: December 01, 2018, 05:19:17 AM »
154 YEARS AGO - Battle of Franklin, Tennessee - November 30, 1864

After allowing Maj. Gen. John Schofield’s Army of the Ohio to pass him near Spring Hill the previous morning, Lieut. Gen. John Bell Hood led his 30,000-man Army of Tennessee to the outskirts of Franklin on November 30th as he continued to press north into central Tennessee. Schofield's army had constructed a strong defensive line south of the town, resting its left flank on the Harpeth River and its right near Carter's Creek. Hood took a position in columns by brigades two miles south of the Yankees, with open, rolling farm land between them, and prepared to attack. At 4:00pm, over 20,000 Confederates moved forward east and west of the Columbia Pike. Hood's men formed from column into line as they approached the outer Union defenses.

The outer Federal defenders soon collapsed and fell back into their second line closer to Franklin. Some of the heaviest fighting of the war ensued as Hood's men plowed into the new Union line. Near 5:00pm, the second Union line fell apart near the Carter House, and was saved in part by the timely arrival of a brigade led by Col. Emerson Opdycke. Confederate Gen. Stephen D. Lee's corps reenforced Hood's left, but the Union position held and Hood’s forces were driven back with heavy losses. 

The bloody assault cost Hood nearly 7,000 casualties, including six dead Confederate generals. Schofield withdrew to Nashville where he and Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas's army would engage Hood one last time.


Re: Military History
« Reply #26 on: December 01, 2018, 05:24:06 AM »
1918. The Battle of the Meuse-Argonne. WWI.




Re: Military History
« Reply #27 on: December 02, 2018, 12:42:37 PM »
Tennessee State Monument - SHILOH

While the Tennessee State Monument pays tribute to the more than 14,000 Tennesseans who fought in the battle, it specifically depicts the color bearers of the 6th Tennessee who were killed. Dedicated in 2005 near the Water Oaks Pond, this vivid sculpture serves as a poignant reminder for visitors to reflect upon what was sacrificed.


Re: Military History
« Reply #28 on: December 02, 2018, 08:56:21 PM »
The Charge of the Light Brigade was a charge of British light cavalry led by Lord Cardigan against Russian forces during the Battle of Balaclava on 25 October 1854 in the Crimean War.






Re: Military History
« Reply #29 on: December 03, 2018, 11:17:11 AM »
This Day in History: Washington's "Watch Chain", 1779

To block the British on the Hudson River, George Washington supervised the construction of fortifications and river defenses. For five years, The Great Chain was stretched across the river – installed in the spring and pulled out before the winter freeze.

"Washington's 'Watch Chain'" by Mort Kunstler