Author Topic: _LINUX_  (Read 209 times)

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_LINUX_
« on: July 01, 2018, 12:01:20 AM »
Instead of cluttering up the Doze thread, how about a thread for all things Linux, Bsd, and one off  Operating Systems.
A general Operating Systems thread.    ;)

Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #1 on: July 01, 2018, 12:04:03 AM »
Moved from the Windoze 10 thread:

This is a total non-tech guy question. I get "news" from Linux about new versions. Right now I'm running on an old Dell laptop Linux Mint 17.3 Rosa. All seems to run well. I don't mess with lots of command line stuff and only use for stuff like radio shows, BG, personal email, sometimes movies. Not for work or finance or anything secure. Not sure if I should or need to upgrade. BUT if one does to latest versions does it entail a whole new computer (that is wiping out everything) or does going to a newer version of Mint etc keep the files you got and just update the Linux OS? (Again, I dont know much about computers or Linux but used because old laptop faster and system stable.)

Take a look here:    https://community.linuxmint.com/tutorial/view/2316

My take on your situation would be if it's working for you, stick with what you have, unless there's a particular problem you're trying to fix. More and more, the newer distributions are dropping support for legacy systems (like your Dell.) Your system  will be good for another year.

If you want to give it a go, what you need to do is upgrade the kernel.  it will keep all your data, but if you are going to try this, back up your system first.
Here's what I would do: Download a copy of LM-18, it should be a live disc - last time I checked, it was.
 Burn it to DVD, (Brasero should be installed with LM)
Shut down your computer, pop the DVD into the player and re-boot it .
If it doesn't boot from the DVD - your regular operating system (Mint 17.3) starts instead, you'll need to enter the bios.
( https://searx.me   "set bios to boot from dvd"  )
Make sure that your dvd player boots before the HDD (hard-drive)
Save and exit (usually F10.)
It will now automatically boot from the DVD.
Test it out on your system. Run all the programs you normally do. See if you can connect and stream, check your email, etc., etc., etc..
If you don't run into any glitches, you should be able to upgrade.
I found a nice little tutorial for you that works both from the command line, and graphically.
It was last updated: December 20, 2016, so it should support all desktop managers by now. (You made a back up right ?)

Okay, the link is here:  https://www.tecmint.com/upgrade-linux-mint-17-to-linux-mint-18/

You will need a solid network connection to do this. If you're on Wifi and the connection drops on you, you could get corrupted files, although apt is pretty good about reconnecting and picking up where it left off.
The last 2 paragraphs of step 4 are important. Make sure to follow them.

In step 7, it shows a screenshot of the Linux Mint Pakage Configuration - blue backgroud, grey info-box with red header writing and black text, and the 'Yes' selection highlighted in red.
To select the highlighted red yes, just hit your enter key. To move to the 'No', use the keyboard arrows, or the tab key.
This is a keyboard only driven output box, so a mouse won't work - maybe on the new distros it does, but in my experience on distros that are older, mice don't work to select.

That's about the only sticky part I see in the tutorial


Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #2 on: July 01, 2018, 12:26:59 AM »
Moved from the Windoze 10 thread:

Take a look here:    https://community.linuxmint.com/tutorial/view/2316

My take on your situation would be if it's working for you, stick with what you have, unless there's a particular problem you're trying to fix. More and more, the newer distributions are dropping support for legacy systems (like your Dell.) Your system  will be good for another year.

If you want to give it a go, what you need to do is upgrade the kernel.  it will keep all your data, but if you are going to try this, back up your system first.
Here's what I would do: Download a copy of LM-18, it should be a live disc - last time I checked, it was.
 Burn it to DVD, (Brasero should be installed with LM)
Shut down your computer, pop the DVD into the player and re-boot it .
If it doesn't boot from the DVD - your regular operating system (Mint 17.3) starts instead, you'll need to enter the bios.
( https://searx.me   "set bios to boot from dvd"  )
Make sure that your dvd player boots before the HDD (hard-drive)
Save and exit (usually F10.)
It will now automatically boot from the DVD.
Test it out on your system. Run all the programs you normally do. See if you can connect and stream, check your email, etc., etc., etc..
If you don't run into any glitches, you should be able to upgrade.
I found a nice little tutorial for you that works both from the command line, and graphically.
It was last updated: December 20, 2016, so it should support all desktop managers by now. (You made a back up right ?)

Okay, the link is here:  https://www.tecmint.com/upgrade-linux-mint-17-to-linux-mint-18/

You will need a solid network connection to do this. If you're on Wifi and the connection drops on you, you could get corrupted files, although apt is pretty good about reconnecting and picking up where it left off.
The last 2 paragraphs of step 4 are important. Make sure to follow them.

In step 7, it shows a screenshot of the Linux Mint Pakage Configuration - blue backgroud, grey info-box with red header writing and black text, and the 'Yes' selection highlighted in red.
To select the highlighted red yes, just hit your enter key. To move to the 'No', use the keyboard arrows, or the tab key.
This is a keyboard only driven output box, so a mouse won't work - maybe on the new distros it does, but in my experience on distros that are older, mice don't work to select.

That's about the only sticky part I see in the tutorial


Thanks. You Da Man.  Appreciate details and opinion. I'm gonna dance with who brung me and stick with my setup, for now. When my ship comes in I'm gonna ask you to set up my system! Full on air-gapped, Fradday caged, off-grid, quauntum logic, with backups...seriously.


Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #3 on: July 01, 2018, 12:28:24 AM »

Thanks. You Da Man.  Appreciate details and opinion. I'm gonna dance who brung me and stick with my setup, for now. When my ship comes in I'm gonna ask you to set up my system! Full on air-gapped, farrady caged, off-grid, quauntum logic, with backups...seriously.

What color do you want the LEDs in the case to be?


Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #4 on: July 01, 2018, 12:34:56 AM »

Thanks. You Da Man.  Appreciate details and opinion. I'm gonna dance with who brung me and stick with my setup, for now. When my ship comes in I'm gonna ask you to set up my system! Full on air-gapped, Fradday caged, off-grid, quauntum logic, with backups...seriously.
8)   ;)     :)

Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #5 on: July 01, 2018, 12:38:47 AM »
What color do you want the LEDs in the case to be?


Something not on visible spectrum, out sourced to a Tawainese compamy but manufactures in mainland factory town owned through shell-companies by the PLA. Just to ensure security and good mfging.

Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #6 on: July 01, 2018, 12:45:54 AM »
What color do you want the LEDs in the case to be?
We could Diesel-Punk the case too. It'll keep you warm on those frosty winter evenings.



It even comes with instructions -    ;)

https://www.modders-inc.com/iron-felix-retro-futuristic-fantasy-casemod/

Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #7 on: July 01, 2018, 07:52:37 AM »
I think the scariest part of Linux, to a new user that has just switched from windows, is the command line, known in Linux terminology as the Terminal.  It is a shell program that has direct access to the Linux kernel.
Eventually, you'll have to use it.
It is much more powerful than Doze cmd.exe.
Don't let it scare you. Once you get used to it, you'll come to realize it's much faster and more efficient than doing things graphically.
The default shell (Terminal) on Debian and it's derivatives (Ubuntu, Mint, Devuan, etc.) is BASH, an acronym for the 'Bourne Again SHell'.
On a lot of Debian based distros (distributions,) a simple keypress of Ctrl + Alt + t - all at the same time -  will bring up BASH, ready and waiting for your commands.
It's a very quick way to launch programs.
Let's say you want to bring up your web browser, for example Firefox. Simply type firefox into the shell and hit the enter key.
Firefox will launch.
Another nice thing about launching programs from BASH, is that if they crash, or encounter errors, you will be able to see the errors in the terminal window. Simply copy the error  and paste it into a search engine, and nine times out of ten, it'll bring up an explanation and a solution for what happened.
BASH is [upper & lower] case sensitive to commands also.  Most of this, the average person will pick up on rather quickly.

To the point of my post: Here is a BASH guide for beginners.  http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Bash-Beginners-Guide/html/Bash-Beginners-Guide.html
It's actually a pretty decent guide.
 

Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #8 on: July 02, 2018, 08:03:22 AM »
Now that I've scared most of you away with the beginners guide for BASH, let's get to the basics of the Terminal in an easy to understand format.
The entire guide I linked is on one webpage, so it might be a good idea to bookmark it, or save it for future reference. (Bookmarked pages can disappear)
It really is a very good quick reference guide when you get better with the terminal.


To save, just right click any whitespace on the page, and 'Save As' from the context menu that pops up. (This functionality should be in all Linux distros.)
Or, if you don't have the page opened in a browser, just right click the link and select Save Link As. It will open your file manager and allow you to save the page itself.

(There are no pictures, so just saving as HTML is fine, you won't lose anything.)

If you would like to DL (download) the page from the Terminal, (Oh Goodie, we get to play with BASH Commands, and yes, it can be done - this is Linux. :) ) read the following instructions first, then execute the command.

Quote
When I use an abbreviation and then put the meaning in parenthesis after it, that means I'll probably be using the abbreviation from then on. All abbreviations will be in all Caps.


==============================================================

TYPE this command into a Terminal and hit enter AFTER reading the following breakdown.

Quote
If you are using Debian or a derivative, pressing Ctrl + Alt + t, all at the same time, should launch the terminal.
If not, look for the terminal in your menu and launch it. (I won't get into key bindings for now.)
Go ahead and launch a terminal now, you will need it before we  actually DL. You might want to resize your browser and terminal window so you can see them both at the same time, too.

Code: [Select]
wget -E -H -k -K -p http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Bash-Beginners-Guide/html/Bash-Beginners-Guide.html
==============================================================

Let's see what this command actually does.

Quote
The synopsis of the command is:

     
Code: [Select]
  wget  [option]   [URL]

wget - comes standard on most full distros. Your lighter weight distributions may not have it. If the command line throws an error like " wget not found ", you'll have to install it.

To Install:
Quote
At the command line type: apt-get install wget   
(Hit enter)
 On distros 16.04 or newer, you have to use apt instead of apt-get:    apt install wget 
 (Then hit enter) 
Enter your password when prompted. You won't see your password in the terminal, just type it in and hit enter.
Watch what's going on in the terminal so you know what it should be doing.

To find your release (14.04, 15.09, 16.04, etc.), if you forgot, just type:

lsb_release -a

at the terminal (and hit enter.)
From now on it will be assumed that when I give a terminal command for you to use, that you will hit the enter button at the end of the command. I won't be typing it out any more.  ;)

(Did you try the lsb command ?   Pretty cool, eh ?)

-----------------------  Breakdown  ------------------------

Wget: A Linux program that retrieves content from web servers.

-E -H -k -K -p: These are known as command line switches (or a command switch.) They are extra arguments that are added to the command. They are the [option] in the Synopsis above. Each software program has it's own set of command line switches.
You can get information on what each one does by typing in the terminal:   man <program name>
So for wget, you would type:

      man wget

BTW, wget has a very easily understandable man page. Go ahead and check it out.
(Just press  q  to return to the command prompt when you are done reading.)
Man [page] is short for Manual pages - the program documentation.

Quote
From now on, whenever you see something typed in-between the less-than, greater-than signs (<xxxx>), it is a generalization instead of a specific name.
The <xxxx> is a linux convention and you will come across it a lot when looking for terminal commands online.
(In programming these are known as Generics, or Generic Types. Generics are general types until something of specific value is substituted for them at runtime.)

Example:

The file path to your Desktop folder would be written generically (because everyone has a different user / login name,) as:

  /home/<username>/Desktop

Whereas when you type the file path in the terminal, you would replace <username> with your username (the name you login with.)
So if your username was Big_Momma,  (remember the terminal is case sensitive, file paths have to be exactly correct,)  the file path to enter into the terminal would look like this:

  /home/Big_Momma/Desktop


Don't bother searching for the switches in the man page, I'll identify them, but I hope you looked at the man page. That is one of the more easy ones to understand. Some are much worse, but they all pretty much follow the same syntax.

Command Switches Used:

  -E  adjust-extension: This adds .html to the end of the saved page, file name, if it doesn't exist. Sometimes on the server, the file extension is not included. This way when you click on the saved page to view it later on, Linux knows to open it in the default web browser because of the HTML file association.

  -H  span-hosts: If part of the web page, for example, pictures, are hosted on another website, this switch will recursively retrieve them.

  -k  Convert page hyperlinks to make them suitable for local viewing. This will make the embedded hyperlinks in the DLed page work from your machine if you are connected to the web. When downloading a page, sometimes the embedded links are symlinked within the website. This switch will convert them to a direct web link so all you have to do is click them to be taken to the link location.

  -K  After downloading and converting the webpage, back up the original downloaded page with the extension .orig appended to the filename.

  -p  page-requisites: Downloads all the files necessary for the saved page to display exactly as you see it displayed in your browser.

http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Bash-Beginners-Guide/html/Bash-Beginners-Guide.html   The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of the webpage we want to DL. It tells wget the webpage to save.

Wget is a pretty powerful software program and works well.
Another thing to remember is that wget DLs to the folder that BASH is currently operating under. The default when you bring up the terminal (BASH) is your home folder.

Now that the command has been explained, go ahead and run it. Watch what it does.  ;)

If you followed these instructions and all went well, you should have a copy of the bash beginners guide in your home folder.  /home/<username>


I'll be writing these guides under the assumption that the people reading them have absolutely no experience whatsoever, but after a few of these, you'll be comfortable using the terminal, and can impress your friends to boot.  ;)    ;D

As a baseline, I'm running a Devuan system, which is a Debian derivative that doesn't use the new systemd (system Daemon - a Linux Daemon [pronounced Demon] is the equivalent of a Windows service - Windows services are listed in the Windows Task manager.)
It uses a different boot loader that terminates once the system is fully booted up. Systemd ties into every daemon that runs on your system. This is dangerous, but it makes things easy for the programmers writing the code for the operating system. That's why it was developed.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systemd

My system is a very lightweight spin of Devuan, so everything that works for me will most likely work for any Debian system or it's derivatives. (Ubuntu, and it's derivatives, Linux Mint, Xubuntu,  MX-14  <-- a sweet little distro you can download HERE, etc. .) If your package manager is Apt, Software Center, (both front-ends for Dpkg,) etc, you're running a Debian derivative, and most of the commands I post will work.

Quote
(Are you hyper-aware ? (a more dignified name for paranoid)
Hover over the embedded links I posted without clicking them and the address of the link will show in your status bar. ;)  )

(If you want to avoid systemd - if you're running an old single core system, or just don't agree with the philosophy (like me), a distribution of 14.04 or earlier will still have System V init. Or, if you have a new machine, a Devuan distro is your answer.)

More to come...  .

Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #9 on: July 02, 2018, 11:02:00 AM »
WARNING:
some command line programs will happily carry out the command with NO confirmation.
some examples :


rm -rf /
this will delete every file (and i mean EVERY file) on your hard drive(s), you may be able to recover some files with specialized software


dd if=/dev/urandom of=/dev/sda


this will WIPE the 1st bios hard drive (sdb would be drive 2) . you cannot recover file from the disk after this.  3 letter govt agencies might get parts of files with highly sophisticated (and very expensive) software or hardware (IE disassemble the drive and read the platters with specialized machinery).
run dd 3+ times and there will be nothing left to recover at all.


#:(){ :|: & };:
this is a fork bomb, it will spawn itself indefinitely or until your computer locks up, forcing a hard reboot; never run this.
i have added  a # to prevent it from running.
point is :
NEVER run a command where you do not understand what it is doing.
man <command> will give some insight or google the command.


Re: _LINUX_BASH-Safety
« Reply #10 on: July 03, 2018, 07:34:28 AM »
Thank you wr250.  :)
Those are excellent explanations and advice.
Commenting out the dangerous code is probably a better idea than enclosing it in
tags like I did. (Had some problems getting the Synopsis to properly post.)

Your comments mesh nicely with todays post.  :)
===============================================================================================

The Linux Terminal is powerful, so let's start with some general rules of caution so you don't bork your system.

1. NEVER copy and paste bash code from a website into the terminal.
   - Code can easily be hidden within the page - anywhere. BASH is direct access to the kernel - the guts of your system - and if malicious code is embedded, it will run in the Terminal and could do all kinds of nasty things.

   - Remedy: Either type in the code by hand, or if you need to copy and paste, paste it into your text editor (gedit, leafpad, mousepad, etc.) first. Any hidden code will show up in the editor.
Take a look at how small the code can be to bork your system:
https://www.tecmint.com/10-most-dangerous-commands-you-should-never-execute-on-linux/

Here's a beautiful example of what I mean:
https://thejh.net/misc/website-terminal-copy-paste

Quote
DO: fire up your text editor and copy / paste the first git clone line from this site into your editor.
DONE.

It doesn't exactly look like what appears on your screen, does it ?
So, how'd they do that ?
When in doubt, go to the source
(right click on some white-space of the webpage > View Page Source.)
Quote
When I use the 'greater-than' sign in a manner like above, (right click... > View Page Source) it denotes menu to submenu selection, or in this case, an instruction to menu selection.

Don't be intimidated if you don't know HTML, they clearly marked the code block that obfuscates the code (with a comment.) But, take a look at how they did it. The unseen code is inserted between "clone" & "git://"...  .
(They used the HTML span tag. This is an example of how a very useful HTML tag can be used for nefarious purposes.)
You can see the elements of the tag here:
https://www.w3schools.com/tags/tag_span.asp


Quote
Code: [Select]
<p class="codeblock">
      <!-- Oh noes, you found it! -->
      git clone
      <span style="position: absolute; left: -100px; top: -100px">/dev/null; clear; echo -n "Hello ";whoami|tr -d '\n';echo -e '!\nThat was a bad idea. Don'"'"'t copy code from websites you don'"'"'t trust!<br>Here'"'"'s the first line of your /etc/passwd: ';head -n1 /etc/passwd<br>git clone </span>
      git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/utils/kup/kup.git
    </p>

So once again, save yourself from some nasty headaches and always follow this rule.   ;)


2. BASH is not only case sensitive (var1 and Var1 are two different things,) but it is also whitespace sensitive.

var1=primo      is not the same as
var1 =primo      or
var1 = primo

    or

To change directory:

#       cd/etc    (won't work)
#       cd /etc   (will change your working directory to /etc instead of the directory you are in - default is /home.

The problem with this, is that a misplaced white-space could cause problems and possibly run arbitrary code (rare, but possible.) Most the time though, BASH will just return an error, so I only mention this for when you are typing in a command, and it doesn't work. Commands must be exact. 

3. Bash will do what you say, not what you mean. In other words, understand the commands you are typing, even if only vaguely. If you are unsure:  man <program name>   or https://www.startpage.com/  for information.

Quote
I have been listing searx.me as an engine to search with. I like the way they return results, BUT, their servers are located in Germany. It was mentioned in another thread that Germany has shitty privacy protection laws - which is true. Ixquick / Startpage is located in the Netherlands, which has much stronger privacy protection laws.

Duckduckgo (amazon) - servers located in Ireland, but they fall under Panama legal jurisdiction - lol.
This is actually a good thing as far as your privacy is concerned.
Recently (for just over the past month, intermittently,) DDG has been experiencing some problems (for me.) I'm not sure if their servers are under attack or if something else is going on. (Page not loading, and getting redirects to insecure servers.)  :(


Once you hit the enter button after typing a command, BASH executes immediately. So it's always a good idea to be sure of what you are typing. 

If you follow these three basic rules, there should be no problems.

For the beginners I haven't totally scared off by now, just exercise some caution, and things should be okay. 

In my next post, we'll get to the fun stuff.   :)

Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #11 on: July 03, 2018, 11:13:05 AM »
This is good stuff

I think one thing that confuses me as an infrequent Linux/BSD user is the file system. With Windows, I知 used to setting up folders on distifferent drives and being able to find things. With other OS, including Apple, you seem to dump everything into one place. Maybe i知 wrong.

Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #12 on: July 03, 2018, 11:21:53 AM »
This is good stuff

I think one thing that confuses me as an infrequent Linux/BSD user is the file system. With Windows, I知 used to setting up folders on distifferent drives and being able to find things. With other OS, including Apple, you seem to dump everything into one place. Maybe i知 wrong.
File systems are on the ToDo list.   
I'll try to get some pictures in that one too  -  to make it more understandable.

Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #13 on: July 03, 2018, 07:25:08 PM »
This is good stuff

I think one thing that confuses me as an infrequent Linux/BSD user is the file system. With Windows, I知 used to setting up folders on distifferent drives and being able to find things. With other OS, including Apple, you seem to dump everything into one place. Maybe i知 wrong.
very quickly and simply usb/sata drives are called /dev/sdX where X is a letter a-z in the order bios presents them.
so /dev/sda would be the 1st bios sata drive. /dev/sda1 would be the 1st partition on bios drive 0 (bios usually labels drives starting with 0) .
this can be mounted on any folder. usually /dev/sda is / (the root partition) and any further drives are usually mounted in /media/ . this can be changed with a config file called /etc/fstab.
so for a custom setup you would change /etc fstab to mount the drives automatically  (not recommended for usb or other removable drives) in the specified folder, which must exist.
here is a sample:
/dev/sdd1 /home/<username>/Drive_D     ntfs      defaults       0       0
this tells linux to automount /dev/sdd1 to folder /home/<username>/Drive_D as a ntfs drive with the default settings. the 0's are for  dump  and pass  more details here  .


nvme drives are labeled nvme0-9AA1 with partitions having a pX tacked on.AA = some digits and X = 1-9.

Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #14 on: July 03, 2018, 07:38:54 PM »
You people are going to force me to buy a new computer and convert my old one to BSD. I hope I have a couple of rack spaces left.

Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #15 on: July 03, 2018, 09:20:02 PM »
very quickly and simply usb/sata drives are called /dev/sdX where X is a letter a-z in the order bios presents them.
so /dev/sda would be the 1st bios sata drive. /dev/sda1 would be the 1st partition on bios drive 0 (bios usually labels drives starting with 0) .
this can be mounted on any folder. usually /dev/sda is / (the root partition) and any further drives are usually mounted in /media/ . this can be changed with a config file called /etc/fstab.
so for a custom setup you would change /etc fstab to mount the drives automatically  (not recommended for usb or other removable drives) in the specified folder, which must exist.
here is a sample:
/dev/sdd1 /home/<username>/Drive_D     ntfs      defaults       0       0
this tells linux to automount /dev/sdd1 to folder /home/<username>/Drive_D as a ntfs drive with the default settings. the 0's are for  dump  and pass  more details here  .


nvme drives are labeled nvme0-9AA1 with partitions having a pX tacked on.AA = some digits and X = 1-9.

If you are going to muck around in the fstab, do take care.  You can make a mess in there.   Review the change you made before you
reboot.  A typo can lead to a boot problem that can cost you some time to fix if you haven't done it before. 

Also, it is a good practice to refer to your disks by their UUID as opposed to their label.   That can save you some heart burn down
the road if you add or remove disks.    More info is here

Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #16 on: July 04, 2018, 07:38:34 AM »
Linux Mint 19 went GA recently. 

Nice distro.  I rather like the Cinnamon Desktop:

Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #17 on: July 04, 2018, 08:30:31 AM »
If you are going to muck around in the fstab, do take care.  You can make a mess in there.   Review the change you made before you
reboot.  A typo can lead to a boot problem that can cost you some time to fix if you haven't done it before. 

Also, it is a good practice to refer to your disks by their UUID as opposed to their label.   That can save you some heart burn down
the road if you add or remove disks.    More info is here
i agree
however i was trying to keep it relatively short.
UUID (wont go into that here) is the way to go as each disk is uniquely identified when formatted, thus not relying on bios order to set labels .
EX: if you have a single disk in bios sata port 3, it will be /dev/sda (1st disk reported by bios). now you add a disk to bios sata port 0 . now this new drive will be /dev/sda. so that can be a mess.
you can test /ect fstab for errors by issuing a "mount -a" command then checking to see if everything is to your liking. note i usually set / and /home during install and dont touch them again unless theres some sort of drive related drive failure.

Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #18 on: July 04, 2018, 09:09:08 AM »
Yeah,  "mount -a" is your friend in the fstab wilderness.   Great add there.  I should have mentioned that. 

Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #19 on: October 12, 2018, 04:25:05 AM »
You people are going to force me to buy a new computer and convert my old one to BSD. I hope I have a couple of rack spaces left.
LOL - Rack spaces are like garages, they're never big enough.   ;)      ;D

Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #20 on: October 12, 2018, 04:32:07 AM »
Yup, W_A_N is correct. If you muck around in fstab, make sure you have a live disk handy. Preferably a Pen-Test distro, although CrunchBang, any Devuan, or specialty recovery disks - like RIPLinux - will get you into the sda, hda file-system, so you can undo the fstab bork.  ;)

Live disks are a life-saver.    ;D

Re: _LINUX_
« Reply #21 on: October 12, 2018, 04:33:59 AM »
Yeah,  "mount -a" is your friend in the fstab wilderness.   Great add there.  I should have mentioned that.
So is 'lsblk'.   ;)